Uzbekistan possesses enormous tourist potential. The country is considered one of the centers of tourism not only in the central Asia, but also all over the World. In the cities most attractive to tourists through which in an antiquity passed the Great silk way connected China with the countries of the Europe, a plenty of architectural monuments of various historical epoch is located: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Shakhrisabz, Kokand, Termez. In ancient cities of Uzbekistan the modern architecture adjoins to monuments of national architecture of the last centuries that is feature characteristic only for Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan has also other resources for attraction of the big number of foreign visitors: deserts and the reserves rich with different kinds of animals and plants (sometimes meeting only in Uzbekistan); mountain tops and the rivers having huge value for development of an active kind of tourism; mineral sources with the curative water which is frequently not having analogues in the World; traditions of an applied art and original culture with which it is possible to get acquainted only in Uzbekistan; economic potential of the country growing every year.
Recreational resources of the Republic allow to organize various kinds of rest, tourist routes and to receive foreign visitors in all-the-year-round.
For complex tour-excursion service in the Republic there is a branched out network of hotels, cafe and restaurants, camping, objects of entertainment and rest, and also set of tourist routes on fine mountain tracks and the rivers.
In order to develop of tourism sphere in expansion and strengthening of the international relations, with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated from 07.27.1992 had been created National Company "Uzbektourism". Priority directions of the National Company are development of legal, economic bases of tourism, perfection of its infrastructure in the Republic, due to attraction of foreign investments, carrying out wide propagation of a historical heritage, implementation of restoration works on monuments of history and culture. There is a lot private travel agencies are operating in the Republic except for National Company "Uzbekturizm".
For today in Uzbekistan operates more than 400 private tourist firms from which 290 are based in capital, and more than 200 - in 12 areas. From 120 hotels only on a to Tashkent it is placed 32, on regions of the Republic - 88.
Laws "About tourism", "About insurance", "About state borders", the governmental orders directed on formation of an investment climate, privatization and privatization in tourist sphere, providing privileges, improvements of a hotel infrastructure, construction of networks of roads and resorts, etc. are operating in Uzbekistan.
According to forecasts, by 2010 56 hotels on 1.07 numbers by capacity in 2.1 thousand places will be constructed, hotels "Bukharas", "Ziyorat", tour base "Kumishkan" are reconstructed. Also the network of road points of service, stationary camping, and complex points on the line Tashkent-Urgench will be erected. The factor of loading of number fund will increase up to 66.9 % (in 2003 it made 22,2 %). Internal and entrance tourism will increase with 626,4 thousand in 2003 up to 2.2 million in 2010, or more than in 3.5 times. The volume of entrance tourism will achieve 1.0 million person. It is predicted the increase in incomes of tourist activity more than in 9 times, export of services - in 4.3 times, profits - in 3.5 times.
By experts of "Uzbekturizm" it is counted up, that by 2010 additional workplaces on 1.0 thousand places will be created. 2 thousand experts, from which supposed to prepare 45 % - with higher education.
Great Silk Road
Great Silk Road – an original phenomenon of the history of developing of humanity, its aspiration for union and exchanging cultural wealth, conquest of the living spaces and markets for goods. In the East they say: “sitting man is a mat and walking man is a river”. Motion is a life, and traveling, learning of world always was a driving force of progress.
This, the biggest transcontinental trade road in history of humanity had been binding Europe and Asia and in the old time was stretching from antic Rome to ancient capital of Japan Nara. Of course, trade between East and West was from time immemorial, but it was a separate piece of future Great road. For beginning of trade relations in many respects assisted working of in mountains semiprecious stones – lapis lazuli, nephritis, cornelian, turquoise valued in the east. There was “lapis lazuli” road by which they delivered this stone from Central Asia to Iran and Mesopotamia and even to Egypt. At the same time with it appeared nephritis road, which had connected regions Khotana and Yarkent with Northern region of China. Moreover, to the countries of Minor Asia from Sogdiana and Baktria had been exported cornelian and from Khorezm turquoise. All this routs in the end jointed with Silk Road.
Real start of great road, bounded caravan’s way, laid from Central Asia to the west and the South, and routs coming from Chine to East Turkistan, belong to the second century B.C., when for Chinese people for the first time was opened West Side – countries of Central Asia.
We should say that this road was not only one arterial road; it included different itineraries, which formed several branches, like a crown of big three. One of the main roads, crossing Asia from east to west, started at ancient capital of China Chanane and continued until its northwest boundary along desert Gobi, through Tien Shan, part of caravans went to Fergana valley and Tashkent Oasis to Samarkand – capital of Sogdiana, Bukhara, Khorezm, further to the shores of the Caspian Sea. Part of the caravans from Samarqand headed to Baktria and through Kashkadarya valley got out to Termez, from where crossing the Amudarya river, headed to the South to Baktria and India.
Another branch of way from Tarim rounded Takla-Makan desert from South and trough Khotan and Yarkent leaded to Baktria (North Afganistan) and Merv, from where through Persia, Syria reached the Mediterranean, and part of goods by sea got the Rome and Greece.
Downright from name, main subject of trade on caravan ways was silk, very valuable in all sublunary worlds. For example, in the early middle ages silk was most popular calculation unit, forcing out even gold. In Sogdiana price of horse was equated to the price of ten length of silk. With silk paid for finished works, for maintenance of mercenaries, with silk could be paid off for crime.
For the first time to caravan’s road the silk road was given by Venetian merchant Marko Polo, who was the first European that reached the boundary of Chinese empire. And to the scientific turn term “Great Silk Road” in 1877 entered German researcher Ferdinand Rihtgofen in his fundamental work “China”.
Although silk was a main, but not unique goods that was transported on transcontinental road. From Central Asia were exported horses, camels, very estimated in China, military equipments, gold and silver, semiprecious stones and glass wares, leather and worst, carpets and cotton fabrics, gold-embriodery clothes, exotic fruits – watermelons, melons and apricots, fat tail sheep and gun dogs, leopards, lions. From China caravans brought chinaware and iron dishes, furnished wares and cosmetics, tea and rice. In a traveling bag of merchants you could find elephant’s tusk, rhinoceros’s horn, tortoise’s shell, spicery and many other things.
On Great Silk Road moved not only trade caravans but also disseminated cultural achievements of nations, cultural wealth and religious ideas. Buddhism was in a row other religion of Kushan kingdom and from here extended to China. In the first centuries from Asia Minor penetrated Christianity. Unbleached warriors of Arab Caliphate in VII century brought Islam doctrine. Hordes of Timuchin rolled past from way laid by merchants and preachers, from Mongol deserts to European plains. From the heart of the Silk Road - Samarqand started his campaigns great commander of medieval Eeast Temur.
At last, during hundred years, scientists and researchers had traveled from caravan road. From traveling notes and scientific works of Chinese monk Soan Czan and Venetian merchant Marko Polo, Arab traveler – merchant Ahmed bin Fadlana and Bavarian warrior Shiltberger, Hungarian researcher Armini Vamberi and Sweden geographer Svena Hedina, Russian scientist Aleksey Fedchenko and French journalist Ella Mayer, American geologist Rafael Pampelli and French traveler Joseph Martin, we know about history of nation, lived in countries, laid along the Great Silk Road, about their traditions and manners.
As live memory of nations, laid this unique road connected East and West, can serve ancient Uzbek cities like Samarqand, Bukhara, Khiva, Shaxrizabs, Termez, Tashkent with their architectural monuments, that personifies centuries – old history of Great Silk Road.
Tashkent - is one of the most biggest ancient city in Central Asia - the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The first information about Tashkent as a city settlings is kept in the ancient east chronicles of the II century B.C., in the Chinese sources it’s called Yuni; in the inscriptions of 262 years B.C. of Pursian king Shapura I on "Kaabe Zoroastra" the oasis of Tashkent was called Chach. Chach was a crossroads on the way of gold export, precious stones, spices and splendid horses to another towns and states. Today Tashkent, in translation from uzbek standing for "Stone town" is a capital of modern Republic, keeping the evidence of future, the memory of many history events of Uzbekistan, - one of the biggest industrial center of Central Asia, with the population of over 2 million people.
Historical and architectural monuments of Tashkent:
• Medrese of Kukeldash (14th century).,
• Mausoleum of Kaffal-Shashi (15th century).,
• Architectural ensemble of Hazrati (Saint) Imom (16th century).,
• Medrese of Abul Kasim (19th century).,
• Medrese of Barak-han (16th century).
• The Mosque of Juma (Friday) (19th century).,
• The museum of Amir Temur - masterpiece of modern architecture,
• The Square of Amir Temur,
• The Square of Freedom,
• The Square of Friendship of Nations,
• The Monument of Courage,
• The Square of Hasti Imom,
• The Mosque of Tilla Sheyh,
• The Square of Hadra,
• МMausoleum of Sufi Ota.
The history of Samarkand - numbers of about 2750 years, and architectural monuments referring to the time of governing dynasty of Timurids’ has such as importance as architectural masterpiece of ancient Egypt, Chinese, India, Greece and Rim.
Historical and architectural monuments of Samarkand
• The ancient settling of Afrosiyab (8th century B.C.),
• The Observatory of Ulugbek (1428-1429),
• Architectural ensemble of Shohi Zinda,
• The Mosque of Hazrati (Saint) Hizr (in the middle of 19th century),
• The Mosque of Bibi - Hanum (1399-1404),
• Medres of Ulugbek (1417-1420),
• Medres of Sher -Dor (1619-1635/36),
• Medres of Tillya - Kori (1647-1659/60),
• Bazaar of Chorsu (four water)(end of 18th century),
• Mausoleum of Ruhabad (1380th ),
• Mausoleum of Ak - Saray (white shed)(1470),
• Mausoleum of Gur - Emir (1404),
• The Mosque of Namozgoh (17th century),
• Mausoleum of Ishrat Xona (1464),
• Ensemble of Hoja Ahror (15-20 century),
• Mausoleum of Chulpan Ota (1430-1440),
• The Cemetery of Hoja Abdu Darun (15th -19th ctntury),
On Sanskrit the Bukhara means "abbey", which was a big commercial center on the Great Silk Road whenever. Bukhara -"The city of museum", proposes more than 140 the architectural monuments of the Middle Ages. Such ensembles as Poi - Kalan, Kosh Madras, mausoleum of Ismail Samoni, minaret of Kalyan and others built 2300 years ago, today they are attracting the great attention of tourists. The famous poets like Narshahi, Rudaki Dakiki and others have played the important role in development of Bukhara .
Historical and architectural monuments of Bukhara
• The Ark (11th -20th century),
• An Ensemble of Bola - Hauz (in the beginning of 18th -20th century),
• Mausoleum of Samani (9th -10th century),
• The Cemetery of Chashmoi - Ayub (1380 or 1384/85),
• Medres of Abdulla - han (1596/98),
• Medres of Madari - han (1556/57),
• The Mosque of Baland (High) (in the beginning of 16th century),
• An Ensemble of Gaukushon (the mosque, minaret, medrese (16th century)),
• Honaka of Zaynutdin Hodji (1555),
• An Ensemble of Poi - Kalon (12th - 14th century),
• An Ensemble of Labi -Houz (16th -17th century),
• Medres of Kukel’dash (1568/69),
• Hanaka of Nodir Divanbegi (1620),
• Medres of Ulugbek (1417),
• Medres of Abdulaziz Han (1652),
• The Mosque of Bola Hauz,
• Mausoleum of Sayfiddin Buharziy (the second half of 13th -14th century),
• Mausoleum of Buen Kuli Han (the second half of 14th -15th or 16th centuries),
• The Mosque of Namazgoh (12th -16th centuries),
• Hanaka of Fayzabad (1598/99),
• The Mosque of Chor-Minor (four column)(1807),
• The Palace of Emir of Bukhara "Sitorai Mohi Hossa" (in the end of 19th the beginning of 20th century),
• Chor-Bakr - the burial place of shih Jubaeri family (1560/63), .
Mystical city Khiva succeeded to keeping its exotically shape of eastern city in the ancient parts of Ichan-Kala, where disposed numerous of architectural monuments.
Historical and architectural monuments of Khiva
• Ichan-Kala: The Mosque and Medrese of Said-bay (end of 18th -beginning of 19th centuries),
• It’s around the gate of Polvan Darboza,
• Medrese of Allakulihan (1834/35),
• Medrese of Kutlug-Murad-Inak (1804/12),
• Bridge and Caravansary of Allakulihan (19th century),
• Medres of Abdulla Han (1865),
• The Mosque and Palace of Anush Han (1657),
• Tosh-Hayli (the stone lot)(of Allakulihan) (1830/36),
• Ok mechet (the white mosque ) (1832/42),
• The Mosque and Minaret of Juma (1788/89),
• Mausoleum of Said Alauddin (14th century),
• Medres of Muhammad Amin Han (1851/52),
• Minaret of Kalta Minor (1855),
• Kun’ya-Ark (1868/88),
• Minaret of Tura-Murat-Tur (1888),
• Medres of Muhammad Amin Han (1871),
• Medres of Shirgaziz han (1718/20),
• The Mosque of Boglandi (19th century),
• Medres of Arabhan (1838)